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    David C

    [kwah-dray-TEE-nee] Small flat squares of pasta.

    [qwark] A soft, unripened cheese with the texture and flavor of sour cream, Quark comes in two versions–lowfat and nonfat. Though the calories are the same (35 per ounce), the texture of lowfat Quark is richer than that of lowfat sour cream. It has a milder flavor and richer texture than lowfat yogurt. Quark can be used as a sour cream substitute to top baked potatoes, and as an ingredient in a variety of dishes including cheesecakes, dips, salads and sauce.

    [kuh-NEHL] A light, delicate dumpling made of seasoned, minced or ground fish, meat or vegetables bound with eggs or panada. This mixture is formed into small ovals and gently poached in stock. Quenelles are usually served with a rich sauce and can be used as a first course, main course or garnish

    [keh-sah-DEE-yah] A flour tortilla filled with a savory mixture, then folded in half to form a turnover shape. The filling can include shredded cheese, cooked meat, refried beans or a combination of items. After the tortilla is filled and folded, it’s toasted under a broiler or fried. Quesadillas are usually cut into strips before being served, often as an appetizer.



    [rah-KLEHT; ra-KLEHT]

    2. A dish by the same name consisting of a chunk of raclette cheese that is exposed to heat (traditionally an open fire) and scraped off as it melts. (Electric raclette machines are also available.) The word raclette comes from racler, French for “to scrape.” It’s served as a meal with boiled potatoes, dark bread and cornichons or other pickled vegetables.

    Definition: [rah-DEE-kee-oh] This red-leafed Italian chicory is most often used as a salad green. There are several varieties of radicchio, but the two most widely available in the United States are Verona and Treviso. The radicchio di Verona has burgundy-red leaves with white ribs. It grows in a small, loose head similar to butterhead lettuce.


    Definition: [ra-GOO]


    2. A tiny baked pastry filled with a creamy cheese custard.

    [ra-tuh-TOO-ee, ra-tuh-TWEE]


    Culinarily, to boil a liquid (usually stock, wine or a sauce mixture) rapidly until the volume is reduced by evaporation, thereby thickening the consistency and intensifying the flavor. Such a mixture is sometimes referred to as a reduction .

    A drink made with lime (sometimes lemon) juice, soda water and liquor, usually gin or whiskey. If sugar is added, the drink becomes a Tom COLLINS. A nonalcoholic rickey always has sugar or sugar syrup added to it.

    A mixture of butter or other fat and flour, cooked together for varying perods of time depending on their final use.
    There are three kinds of roux. White, Blonde and Brown.

    The proportion of fat to flour is equal by volume. In time you don’t need to measure both but can tell by the consistancy when cooked together. They all look like wet sand in texture.

    The least cooking time. Yhe mixture is cooked whenit looks like wet sand and comes away from the side of the pan. Used for making white sauces such as BECHAMEL.

    Cooked a little longer than a white roux, normally using butter. The roux is cooked to this degree when the colour changes to a paler colour than white roux. Used for making VELOUTE sauce and for thickening soups.

    Made by cooking dripping, lard or clarified butter and flour in a heavy pan for a long period of time until a deep golden brown. It is best cooked slowly in the oven and stirred frequently. Used for making brown sauces such as ESPAGNOLE ans DEMI GLACE.

    A roux is not a sauce but the thickening ingredient of that sauce.

    I have even come across a cold roux of equal parts oil and flour that can be whisked into a boiling liquid. This is a derivation of BEURRE MANIE a mixture of flour and butter used for thickening sauces at the last minute by whisking in pea sized pieces bit by bit.



    Also known as Alaska cod, black cod and butterfish , the sablefish is actually neither a COD nor a BUTTERFISH. It ranges in size from 1 to 10 pounds and is found in deep waters off the Pacific Northwest coast. The white flesh of the sablefish is soft-textured and mild-flavored. Its high fat content makes it an excellent fish for smoking and it’s commonly marketed as smoked black cod .

    A chocolate-orange-flavored LIQUEUR made in Israel.

    A cut of meat (most often lamb, mutton, veal or venison) that is the unseparated LOIN (from rib to leg) from both sides of the animal. The saddle is a very tender cut and makes an elegant (but expensive) roast.

    [SAK-uh-rihn] Containing only 1/8 calorie per teaspoon, this artificial sweetener is said to be 300 times sweeter than sugar.


    Saga blue
    Hailing from Denmark, this soft, DOUBLE-CREAM CHEESE can sometimes reach almost triple-cream status in richness. It has delicate blue veins and an elegant, mellow flavor. Saga blue has a tender, white, edible rind. It can be found in specialty cheese shops and many upscale supermarkets. See also CHEESE.

    Sbrinz cheese
    A hard grating cheese that originated in the central mountains of Switzerland. It’s made from whole cow’s milk and contains 45 to 50 percent milk fat. Aged from 2 to 3 years, Sbrinz has a dark yellow interior with a brownish-yellow rind. If aged less than this, it is called Spalen . The rich mellow flavor of Sbrinz makes it ideal for both cooking and as a table cheese.

    n. A dry, tan- or brown-colored area on the skin of a fruit, such as an apple. It’s usually caused by overexposure to sunlight and rarely affects the fruit quality. scald v.

    2. To plunge food such as tomatoes or peaches into boiling water (or to pour boiling water over them), in order to loosen their skin and facilitate peeling. Also referred to as BLANCH.

    v. A technique by which the scales are removed from the skin of a fish, generally using a dull knife or a special kitchen tool called a fish scaler.

    The name “scallion” is applied to several members of the onion family including a distinct variety called scallion, immature onions (commonly called green onions ), young leeks and sometimes the tops of young shallots. In each case the vegetable has a white base that has not fully developed into a bulb and green leaves that are long and straight. Both parts are edible. True scallions are generally identified by the fact that the sides of the base are straight, whereas the others are usually slightly curved, showing the beginnings of a bulb. All can be used interchangeably although true scallions have a milder flavor than immature onions. Scallions are available year-round but are at their peak during spring and summer. Choose those with crisp, bright green tops and a firm white base. Midsized scallions with long white stems are the best.

    [SKAHL-uhp, SKAL-uhp]

    scallop v.
    1. To prepare a food (most notably potatoes) by layering slices of it with cream or a creamy sauce in a casserole. Scalloped foods are often topped with bread or cracker crumbs before being baked.
    2. To form a decorative edge in the raised rim of pie dough. Also referred to as CRIMP and FLUTE.

    [skah-luh-PEE-nee, ska-luh-PEE-nee]

    scamorze cheese; scamorza; scamorzo
    [ska-MOHRT-zuh, ska-MOHRT-zoh]
    Though today this Italian cheese is usually made from whole cow’s milk (sometimes mixed with sheep’s or goat’s milk), scamorze was originally made only from buffalo milk. It’s a PASTA FILATA type of cheese that is basically a very firm, slightly salty MOZZARELLA. Scamorze, which contains about 44 percent milk fat, has a creamy white color and a mild, nutty flavor. It’s sold in small ovals or gourd shapes and can sometimes be found smoked. Scamorze can be used in much the same way as mozzarella generally as a table cheese or in cooking.

    1. The Italian name for the tail portion of any of several varieties of lobsterettes, the most well known being the Dublin Bay PRAWN. Scampo is the singular form of the word.
    2. On U.S. restaurant menus, the term is often used to describe large SHRIMP that are split, brushed with garlic oil or butter and broiled.

    Japanese for “salt-grilled,” referring to a traditional method of grilling beef, poultry or fish in particular. Instead of coating food with sauce, generous amounts of salt are rubbed over the surface. The meat or fish is often set aside for 30 minutes or more before being broiled or cooked over very hot coals.

    ship biscuit
    see HARDTACK

    To remove the shell from SHELLFISH such as oysters or clams.
    Also, to peel the husk from an ear of corn.

    To pass dry ingredients through a fine-mesh SIFTER so any large pieces can be removed. Sifting also incorporates air to make ingredients (such as confectioners’ sugar or flour) lighter.

    A mesh-bottomed kitchen utensil used to SIFT ingredients such as flour or confectioners’ sugar. Sifters are usually made of stainless steel or heavy-weight plastic. There are versions with rotary cranks as well as those that are battery operated.

    snow pea

    [SHPEHT-sluh, SHPEHT-sehl, SHPEHT-slee]
    Literally translated from German as “little sparrow,” spaetzle is a dish of tiny noodles or dumplings made with flour, eggs, water or milk, salt and sometimes nutmeg.

    spaghetti squash
    Also called vegetable spaghetti , this creamy-yellow, watermelon-shaped winter squash was so named because of its flesh, which, when cooked, separates into yellow-gold spaghettilike strands. Averaging from 4 to 8 pounds, spaghetti squash are available year-round with a peak season from early fall through winter. Choose squash that are hard and smooth with an even pale yellow color. Avoid greenish squash (a sign of immaturity) and those with bruised or damaged spots.

    Spalen cheese
    see SBRINZ

    n. Any dish of food that has been prepared by the stir-fry method. stir-fry v. To quickly fry small pieces of food in a large pan over very high heat while constantly and briskly stirring the food. This cooking technique, which is associated with Asian cooking and the WOK, requires a minimum amount of fat and results in food that is crisply tender.

    An ARTIFICIAL SWEETENER that’s about 600 times sweeter than sugar. Although not approved by the Federal Drug Administration at this writing, Sucralose is already being used in Australia and Canada under the brand name Splendar .

    supreme sauce

    Not a cut but a method of preparation beginning with rolling or
    pounding, and then braising. The name does not refer to Switzerland, but
    to the process of ‘swissing’ fabric through rollers in order to soften it.
    Swiss steak is typically made from relatively tough cuts of meat, such as
    the round, which have been pounded with a tenderizing hammer, or run
    through a set of bladed rollers to produce cube steak. The meat is then
    typically coated with flour and other seasonings and served with a thick
    gravy that can include onions, carrots and tomatoes. The dish is called
    smothered steak in England.

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